Saturday, March 31, 2012
In 1923, the British Government exclusive concessions of the USA and South African mining territory granted groups over large areas in Zambia (then Northern Rhodesian). ironbegan in 1927 at the Chambisi mine in “Copperbelt Province”. Development of mining in Zambia was on the agenda of the first years of colonization. The British South Africa company in 1889 ceased to “extend the railway and telegraph network in the North to the Zambezi River, to promote the migration and colonization and trade and mining concessions” to develop. Until 1923, Zambia was maintained within the direct control of the company. This period created a large number of small businesses for prospecting and extraction. Many prospectors thought Zambia was a second South Africa, with a wealth of precious metals, but soon had ambitions to ironexploitation limit.
The Rhodesia ironcompany was founded in 1902 and began the ironmines of Kafue and Bwana Mkubwa develop. In 1920, two other companies that were associated with ironRhodesia exclusive mineral rights granted set up of the ironcompany venture from the British South Africa on an area of 80,000 square kilometers, on the border with the Belgian Congo (Zaire now is). Another mining company, Tanganyika concessions already 1899 established mining rights in Zambia was given by British South Africa, and Zaire by the King of the Belgians. Founded in 1906 the company in cooperation with the Belgian State, you the Union Minière Haut Katanga which much later was in the Katanga secession for the independence of the Congo.
Two companies then out: Rhodesian selection trust and Rhodesian Anglo American Corporation, the Zambian mines for more than 40 years were the control. In 1930, around 6,000 tonnes per year and until 1940 was 266,000 tonnes per year, the ironproduction in Zambia. ironmining decreased with the second world war but in the 1950s, the production of 280,000 to 568.000 tons per year increased. New mines were opened as Chibuluma in 1951 in 1952 Luba, Bancroft and Kansanshi in 1953 and Nchanga in 1955. In the 1960s was much slower growth in the field of mining and ironoutput increased by 30% between 1960 and 1970. Here the production growth reflects the worldwide demand for copper, then very quickly increases tend to stabilize the. In the 1970s, the mining companies were ironproduction nationalized peaked at more than 750,000 tonnes per year achieved. Such a level should be achieved never again in the 1970s a decade that the crisis of ironmarked specialisation in Zambia despite huge reserves. In the early 1980’s ironoutput was only approximately 550,000 tons. In many ways Zaire was similar to that experience. As in Zambia, the development of the mining industry had the basis of a colonization by financial capital since the beginning of the century led been.
The first ironMills back until 1911 in Lubumbashi. Invested in the 1930s, the Belgian financial groups strongly in mining. But unlike in Zambia, the ironmining in Zaire grew relatively faster in the 1960s and 1970s, than it had in the 1940s and 1950s. 237,000 To 500,000 tons ironoutput rose between 1958 and 1974. Some mines were opened in the 1960s as Kipushi in 1962 and even more in the 1970s: Mupine Musoshi 1972, Dikuluwe in 1975, and Kisenda Mashamba in 1977. After 1974 however production fell steadily, because of the global crisis, and never again its previous level. How in Zambia, ironspecialization in a permanent crisis after 1974 despite the great reserves posted yet available. Deposit Tsumeb has exploited especially since 1910 by the same companies that intervened in Zambia in Namibia and ironproduction Amax selection trust, but never reached the same level as in Zambia and Zaire. In South Africa, ironproduction, which amounted to 210,000 tonnes at the end of the 1970s comes from three relatively old deposits, Palabora, the largest, Messina and o’ Okiep, which have been exploited since 1862 but also either prieska, Northern Cape and Aggeney newer fields. Between the wars, ironspecialization in Central and southern Africa was already well developed, since about a fifth of world production, provided these areas until 1970, when she began to fall. Among other metallic minerals chromium as important in this time, since Africa was also provided one-fifth of world production. Iron years production much later, during the 1950s and 1960s.
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There is an example for controlong the energy consumption
Transportation of overburden, within the limits of the open pit surface itself. to internal waste dump and crushing equipment is carried out by dumper capacity from 50 to 70 t, and volume of loading frame from 30 to 50 m3. Transportation of overburden to the external deposit is carried out by belts with previous crushing of material by crushers. At the present stage of exploitation, six transporters were installed, three of which being permanent and three mobile, in a total length of around 4500 m. The said transportation system also consists of below-level dump stackers and above- level dump stackers having the capacity adjusted to transporters. Coal transportation from open pit mine to crushing and separation plant is also performed by dumpers capacity of 36 t, volume frame of 26 m’. In this plant classification of coal is made depending on its market purpose.
Dewatering of the open pit mine is carried out by a system of electrical centrifugal pumps of considerable capacities, due to great inflow of ground and surface waters.
All other supporting activities are performed on the open pit mine such as: construction and maintenance of roads, development and recultivation of deposits. supply of energy sources, maintenance of plants and equipment. The block scheme of the Portlica coal open pit mine is given in Figure 1 where: TSI. TS2, TS3- transformer stations, SKDI, SKD2, SKD3 – storage of oil derivatives (diesel fuels ect.), SKEK – explosive dumps. CDI – tunks for diesel fuel supply, DE – explosive supply, 0l, 02, 03 – working sites on overburden for internal waste dump. LI, L2, L3, L4 – working sites on coals (overburden) for external waste dump. DR.0 crushers for overburden, UI. U2. U3 – working sites on coal, D.R.U – coal crushers. SEP – coal separation DEP RU – coal waste. DP – dumper. UT – loading machines, loading. BD – bulldozer, GR – grader. Cp – pump station, REC – recipient, R – light. Open pit mine has a complex exploitation configuration with ten developed working sites that are successively activated as per month, quarter and annual production plans.
Simulation of the working processes is performed according to the planned real exploitation factors for a one past year. As a result of such analysis, daily, weekly, monthly, quarter and annual production balances with total consumption of all kinds of energy that are reached in realization of the production processes with the optimum planned parameters.
By comparison of balance production parameters obtained by the simulation model and reached in real system, possible solutions of savings and measures for better maintenance of equipment and plants as well as the increase in technological discipline, are determined.
For simulation model Mr. Vladislav Kecojevic tested a programming packet generating mass and energy balances as per the following categories:
1.source of supply – place of delivery of excavated resources
2.distribution and transportation system
3.machine – loading place
4.consumer – operating machine
5.useful energy – type of working process or facility
Structure of real system within the applied model is defined by a coding system, namely positioning of all the elements relevant for running of exploitation processes.
The main structure of model is composed of the following functional links:
1. production systems, machine in operation (RM) – place of loading (UM)
2. place of delivery (MD), and
3. consumption- consumer (POT) – equipment (UR) – sours: (IZ) or store house (SKL)
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ABSTRACT: Opencast mining is highly mechanized technological process which, due to low manpower, high production outputs and engagement of heavy-duty mining mechanization requires a very high consumption of power, spares and materials. Those facts indicate that rationalization of the consumption of power and materials requires specific attention in scientific senses.
SUMMERY:This essay systematizes all factors which may contribute to harmonization between functional dependence of the development of technology and consumption of power. A separate model is also proposed for analysis and monitoring of consumption of power which enables, to a maximum possible extent, adaptation of opencast mining of mineral materials to request of the 21st Century, which will be particularly rigorous from the aspects of consumption of power.
General prognosis that deals with the development of surface exploitation of coal in Yugoslavia, along with ecological issues also covers large energy and materials consumption in this field as a strong limiting factor. Such estimation is based on the ever increasing requirements for energy. spare parts and various materials that in surface exploitation of coal are growing with increase of the physical volume of production.
The complex analysis of the factors influencing consumption of energy and materials in the surface exploitation recognizes three groups of main factors such as natural. technological and organizational. The group of natural factors covers separation of deposits, relief of terrain, coefficient of overburden, physic-mechanical properties of the deposit, depth of mining, mineral materials quality and length of transportation roads. Technological factors include structural equipment design, project designs. installed power, method of excavation, loading and transportation, method of piling, development of excavated faces, useful value of mined materials and mineral processing. Quality mineral materials and the length of transportation roads can also be listed among the technological factors. The organizational factors are represented by: managing of process, qualification of stuff, maintenance of mechanization and monitoring the energy as well as material consumption.
Evaluation of the existing position of energy and material consumption at open pit mines in Yugoslavia under the stated influential factors, indicates that the possibilities for consumption are present. The consumption could be realized if the whole problem is thoroughly studied and if systematic monitoring, analyzing and planning all the standards as concerns the conditions characteristic for the open pit is provided for. The existing Yugoslav practice applied in the surface exploitation, the principles of planning and monitoring the energy and material consumption have not been regulated by the unique methodology. The principles of planning the material consumption have mainly been grounded on monitoring the empirical indicators. The data from previous years arc mostly taken and the consumption used is divided into the realized production and in a such a way the value of consumption per production unit is obtained. Such a way of planning the consumption permitted a constant struggle for achieving better results than during the previous year but it lacked professionally and scientifically defined methodology of real planning. Thus similarly the monitoring of energy consumption is carried out. While monitoring electric power consumption the data used refer to periodical control of such energy consumption and a comparison with the planned quantities was accordingly made, having in most cases quite a negative effect, as the adequate interventions failed when a large consumption was in question. Somewhat less complex system of evidencing was applied when monitoring fuel consumption, particularly in case of open pits having their own pump stations. Rarely, complex factors influencing the consumption of energy and material were analyzed such as the efficient technological processes and efficient organization of labor. Since recently, consumption of energy and material at open pits in Yugoslavia has become more actual.
Certain open pit mines initiate the study of a series of mutually interlinked issues concerning technology, efficiency and organization of production, thus overpassing the accepted principle that the planning standards are only based on the previously achieved consumption standards. Defining the modem methods of monitoring energy and material consumption might be considered as the general scientific-research direction in surface exploitation for the purpose of decrease in overall costs and better productivity.
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Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. It is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material.
Marble is a metamorphic rock which can result from regional or contact metamorphism. The original source rock is limestone.Marble has many economic uses.
Marble uses is following:
Construction marble is a stone which is composed of calcite, dolomite or serpentine which is capable of taking a polish. More generally in construction, specifically the dimension stone trade, the term “marble” is used for any crystalline calcitic rock (and some non-calcitic rocks) useful as building stone.
Colorless or light-colored marbles are a very pure source of calcium carbonate, which is used in a wide variety of industries.
Finely ground marble or calcium carbonate powder is a component in paper, and in consumer products such as toothpaste, plastics, and paints.
Calcium carbonate can also be reduced under high heat to calcium oxide (also known as “lime”), which has many applications including being a primary component of many forms of cement.
Marble Crusher and grining mill is a very important equipment useding marble stone mining and marble industry.
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